Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Note A - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Note A - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2014
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Significant Accounting Policies [Text Block]

Description of Business: Clearfield, Inc., (the Company) is a manufacturer of a broad range of standard and custom passive connectivity products to customers throughout the United States.  These products include fiber distribution systems, optical components, Outside Plant (OSP) cabinets, and fiber and copper cable assemblies that serve the communication service provider, including Fiber-to-the-Premises (FTTP), large enterprise, and original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) markets.

Revenue Recognition: Revenue is recognized when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, the product has been delivered, the fee is fixed, acceptance by the customer is reasonably certain and collection is reasonably assured.  This generally occurs upon shipment of product to the customer.  Sales of the Company’s products are subject to limited warranty obligations that are included in the Company’s terms and conditions.  Also, the Company offers limited discounts and rebates to customers which are recorded in net sales on an estimated basis as the sales are recognized.  The Company records freight revenues billed to customers as sales and the related shipping and handling cost in cost of sales.  Taxes collected from customers and remitted to governmental authorities are presented on a net basis.

Cash and Cash Equivalents: The Company considers all highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less to be cash equivalents.  Cash equivalents at September 30, 2014 and 2013 consist entirely of short-term money market accounts.

The Company maintains cash balances at several financial institutions, and at times, such balances exceed insured limits.  The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and believes it is not exposed to any significant credit risk on cash and cash equivalents.

Investments: The Company currently invests its excess cash in bank certificates of deposit (CD’s) that are fully insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) with a term of not more than three years.  CD’s with original maturities of more than three months are reported as held-to-maturity investments and are recorded at amortized cost, which approximates fair value due to the negligible risk of changes in value due to interest rates.  The maturity dates of our CD’s are as follows:

September 30,
September 30,
Less than one year
  $ 6,632,000     $ 5,992,000  
1-3 years
    8,302,000       6,770,000  
  $ 14,934,000     $ 12,762,000  

Accounts Receivable: Credit is extended based on the evaluation of a customer’s financial condition and collateral is generally not required.  Accounts that are outstanding longer than the contractual payment terms are considered past due.  The Company does not charge interest on past due receivables.  The Company determines its allowance by considering a number of factors, including the length of time trade receivables are past due, the Company’s previous loss history, the customer’s current ability to pay its obligation to the Company, and the condition of the general economy and the industry as whole.  The Company writes off accounts receivable when they become uncollectible; payments subsequently received on such receivables are credited to the allowance for doubtful accounts.  The allowance for doubtful accounts was $97,950 at both September 30, 2014 and September 30, 2013.

Fair Value of Financial Instruments: The financial statements include the following financial instruments: cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments, long-term investments, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses.  Other than long-term investments, all financial instruments’ carrying values approximate fair values because of the short-term nature of the instruments.  Long-term investments’ carrying value approximates fair value due to the negligible risk of changes in value due to interest rates.

Inventories: Inventories consist of finished goods, raw materials and work in process and are stated at the lower of average cost (which approximates first in, first out) or market.  Inventory is valued using material costs, labor charges, and allocated factory overhead charges and consists of the following:

September 30,
September 30,
Raw materials
  $ 3,729,160     $ 4,110,224  
    292,557       494,980  
Finished goods
    1,368,625       1,021,560  
    $ 5,390,342     $ 5,626,764  

Inventory is stated at the lower of cost or market.  On a regular basis, the Company reviews its inventory and identifies that which is excess, slow moving, and obsolete by considering factors such as inventory levels, expected product life, and forecasted sales demand.  Any identified excess, slow moving, and obsolete inventory is written down to its market value through a charge to cost of sales.  It is possible that additional inventory write-down charges may be required in the future if there is a significant decline in demand for the Company’s products and the Company does not adjust its manufacturing production accordingly.

Property, Plant and Equipment: Property, plant and equipment are recorded at cost.  Significant additions or improvements extending asset lives are capitalized, while repairs and maintenance are charged to expense when incurred.  Depreciation is provided in amounts sufficient to relate the cost of assets to operations over their estimated useful lives.  Leasehold improvements are amortized over the shorter of the remaining term of the lease or estimated life of the asset.  Estimated useful lives of the assets are as follows:

Leasehold improvements
10 or life of lease

Property, plant and equipment consist of the following:

September 30,
September 30,
Manufacturing Equipment
  $ 3,057,665     $ 2,404,797  
Office Equipment
    1,985,409       1,862,847  
Leasehold Improvements
    320,218       127,883  
    192,321       154,945  
      5,555,613       4,550,472  
Less accumulated depreciation
    3,093,363       2,753,660  
    $ 2,462,250     $ 1,796,812  
Depreciation expense
  $ 699,306     $ 475,524  

Goodwill and Patents: The Company operates as one reporting unit and reviews the carrying amount of goodwill annually in the fourth quarter of each fiscal year and more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the assets may not be recoverable.  The Company determines its fair value for goodwill impairment testing purposes by calculating its market capitalization and comparing that to the Company’s carrying value.  The Company’s goodwill impairment test for the years ended September 30, 2014, 2013 and 2012 resulted in excess fair value over carrying value and therefore, no adjustments were made to goodwill.  During the year ended September 30, 2014, there were no triggering events that indicated goodwill could be impaired.

A significant reduction in our market capitalization or in the carrying amount of net assets of a reporting unit could result in an impairment charge.  If the carrying amount of a reporting unit exceeds its fair value, the Company would measure the possible goodwill impairment loss based on an allocation of the estimate of fair value of the reporting unit to all of the underlying assets and liabilities of the reporting unit, including any previously unrecognized intangible assets.  The excess of the fair value of a reporting unit over the amounts assigned to its assets and liabilities is the implied fair value of goodwill.  An impairment loss is recognized to the extent that a reporting unit's recorded goodwill exceeds the implied fair value of goodwill.  An impairment loss would be based on significant estimates and judgments, and if the facts and circumstances change, a potential impairment could have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.

No impairment of goodwill has occurred during the years ended September 30, 2014, 2013 or 2012, respectively.

The Company capitalizes legal costs incurred to obtain patents.  Once accepted by either the U.S. Patent Office or the equivalent office of a foreign country, these legal costs are amortized using the straight-line method over the remaining estimated lives, not exceeding 17 years.  As of September 30, 2014, the Company has four patents granted and four pending applications pending inside and outside the United States.

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets: The Company assesses potential impairments to its long-lived assets or asset groups when there is evidence that events occur or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset or asset group may not be recovered.  An impairment loss is recognized when the carrying amount of the long-lived asset or asset group is not recoverable and exceeds its fair value.  The carrying amount of a long-lived asset or asset group is not recoverable if it exceeds the sum of the undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use and eventual disposition of the asset or asset group.  Any required impairment loss is measured as the amount by which the carrying amount of a long-lived asset or asset group exceeds its fair value and is recorded as a reduction in the carrying value of the related asset or asset group and a charge to operating results.  No impairment of long-lived assets has occurred during the years ended September 30, 2014, 2013 and 2012.

Income Taxes: The Company records income taxes in accordance with the liability method of accounting.  Deferred taxes are recognized for the estimated taxes ultimately payable or recoverable based on enacted tax law.  The Company establishes a valuation allowance to reduce the deferred tax assets when it is more likely than not that a deferred tax asset will not be realizable.  Changes in tax rates are reflected in the tax provision as they occur.

In accounting for uncertainty in income taxes, we recognize the financial statement benefit of a tax position only after determining that the relevant tax authority would more likely than not sustain the position following an audit.  For tax positions meeting the more likely than not threshold, the amount recognized in the financial statements is the largest benefit that has a greater than 50 percent likelihood of being realized upon ultimate settlement with the relevant tax authority.  As of September 30, 2014, the Company does not have any unrecognized tax benefits.  The Company recognizes interest and penalties accrued on any unrecognized tax benefits as a component of income tax expense.  We do not expect any material changes in our unrecognized tax positions over the next 12 months.

Stock-Based Compensation: We measure and recognize compensation expense for all stock-based payments at fair value over the requisite service period.  We use the Black-Scholes option pricing model to determine the weighted average fair value of options.  For restricted stock grants, fair value is determined as the average price of the Company’s stock on the date of grant.  Equity-based compensation expense is included in selling, general and administrative expenses.  The determination of fair value of stock-based payment awards on the date of grant using an option-pricing model is affected by our stock price as well as by assumptions regarding a number of subjective variables.  These variables include, but are not limited to, the expected stock price volatility over the term of the awards, and actual and projected employee stock option exercise behaviors.

The expected terms of the options are based on evaluations of historical and expected future employee exercise behavior.  The risk-free interest rate is based on the U.S. Treasury rates at the date of grant with maturity dates approximately equal to the expected life at grant date.  Volatility is based on historical and expected future volatility of the Company’s stock.  The Company has not historically issued any dividends and does not expect to in the future.  Forfeitures for both option and restricted stock grants are estimated at the time of the grant and revised in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from estimates.

If factors change and we employ different assumptions in the determination of the fair value of grants in future periods, the related compensation expense that we record may differ significantly from what we have recorded in the current periods.

Net Income Per Share: Basic and diluted net income per share is computed by dividing net income by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding and the weighted average number of dilutive shares outstanding, respectively.  Weighted average common shares outstanding for the years ended September 30, 2014, 2013 and 2012 were as follows:

Year ended September 30,
Net income
  $ 5,432,851     $ 4,733,844     $ 7,701,194  
Weighted average common shares
    12,916,273       12,527,153       12,371,371  
Dilutive potential common shares
    685,321       551,786       418,797  
Weighted average dilutive common shares outstanding
    13,601,594       13,078,939       12,790,168  
Earnings per share:
  $ 0.42     $ 0.38     $ 0.62  
  $ 0.40     $ 0.36     $ 0.60  

The calculation of diluted net income per common share for the year ended September 30, 2012 excluded 323,500 potentially dilutive shares because their effect was anti-dilutive.  There were no potentially dilutive shares excluded from the calculation above for the years ended September 30, 2014 and 2013.

Use of Estimates: The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, related revenues and expenses and disclosure about contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements.  Significant estimates include the deferred tax asset valuation allowance, the valuation of our inventory, rebates related to revenue recognition, and the valuation of long-lived assets and goodwill.  Actual results may differ materially from these estimates.

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements:

Revenue from Contracts with Customers - In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued guidance creating Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Section 606, “Revenue from Contracts with Customers”.  The new section will replace Section 605, “Revenue Recognition” and creates modifications to various other revenue accounting standards for specialized transactions and industries.  The section is intended to conform revenue accounting principles with a concurrently issued International Financial Reporting Standards with previously differing treatment between United States practice and those of much of the rest of the world, as well as, to enhance disclosures related to disaggregated revenue information.  The updated guidance is effective for annual reporting periods beginning on or after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those annual periods.  The Company will adopt the new provisions of this accounting standard at the beginning of fiscal year 2018, given that early adoption is not an option.  The Company will further study the implications of this statement in order to evaluate the expected impact on its financial statements.